Pfizer, its partner Biontech, and Moderna have published data that show that two vaccines that three companies are working on are about 95% effective in preventing Covid19 disease.
AstraZeneca reported this week that its vaccine could have a potency of up to 90%.
The companies said that distribution can begin immediately for governments around world to decide who will receive vaccine and in what order, if relevant authorities approve se vaccines in coming weeks.
Here is a framework for steps that might take that process:
When do companies launch vaccine?
Pfizer, Moderna and AstraZeneca have already started manufacturing vaccines. Pfizer said it will produce enough this year to immunize 25 million people. Moderna will produce enough to vaccinate 10 million, while AstraZeneca will produce enough for more than 100 million people.
Distribution in United States will be managed by US Department of Defense and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and will likely begin in midDecember with an initial 6.4 million doses available nationwide.
Britain’s health authorities intend to start distributing vaccine as soon as possible, and that is expected to happen in December.
In European Union, it is up to each of 27 member states to start distributing vaccines to ir own populations.
Who will get an approved vaccine in United States and when?
The CDC said that when US Food and Drug Administration approves vaccine, it will be first to receive about 21 million people working in health care, in addition to three million people living in health care centers for long periods.
The next group is likely to be 87 million basic workers who work in jobs that cannot be done from home. Among m are firefighters, police, and workers in education, transportation, food, agriculture and food services.
The next group of priorities is about 100 million adults with severe disease and 53 million over age of 65 who are most likely to have disease.
And public health officials in United States said that vaccines will generally be available to most Americans in pharmacies, medical clinics and doctors’ offices in April, so that vaccine will be available to anyone who wants to be vaccinated by end of June.
It is unclear when vaccine will be available to children. Pfizer and Biontec began testing ir vaccine in volunteers at age of 12.
When will vaccine be available in or countries?
Mechanisms exist in European Union, Britain, Japan, Canada and Australia for rapid adoption of vaccines.
A large proportion of doses that AstraZeneca will produce this year are expected to go to Britain, where health officials have said that after vaccine is approved y may start immunizing people in December. And on top of ir priorities are workers and residents of nursing homes.
In Europe, European Union’s Medicines Approval Authority said it could issue its opinion on safety of vaccine during next December.
Most countries have said that first batch of vaccine will be intended for elderly, vulnerable and frontline workers such as doctors.
Countries say y will buy vaccine through a joint procurement plan run by European Commission, which has concluded deals for six different vaccines and nearly two billion doses.
Distribution schedules vary, and most countries still draw up plans for distribution and vaccination.
Italy expects to receive first batches of PfizerBionic and AstraZeneca vaccines early next year. Spain plans to start immunizing its citizens in January.
In Bulgaria, Inspector General of Health said he expected first shipments to arrive in March or April. Hungary’s Health Minister said doses will arrive in spring at earliest.
As for Germany, to which Biontech belongs, it expects to launch vaccine in early 2021 in mass immunization centers in exhibition halls, airports and party halls.
Germany will also use mobile teams to service nursing homes. And frontline health care workers who are most vulnerable to COVID19 will be vaccinated before ors.
When do developing countries get vaccines?
The Kovacs program, led by World Health Organization and Jaffe Vaccine Group, which aims to pool funds from rich countries and nonprofit organizations, to purchase vaccines and distribute m to dozens of poor countries, has raised two billion dollars.
The first goal of program is to immunize 3 percent of people in those countries, with percentage eventually rising to 20 percent. The program has signed a preliminary agreement to purchase AstraZeneca vaccine, which does not require storage in special highlycooled devices such as Pfizer vaccine.
It is expected that less wealthy countries in Africa and Souast Asia, such as India, will receive vaccine at reduced or free rates under this program in 2021, although this is not certain.
Or countries, such as Latin American countries, may also buy vaccine via Kovacs. Several countries are also working to conclude agreements with pharmaceutical companies.
How much will vaccine cost?
Vaccine manufacturers have negotiated varying prices, which are not all disclosed. Governments have paid sums ranging from a few dollars for a dose of AstraZeneca to $ 50 for a twodose Pfizer vaccine.
Many countries said y would cover costs of vaccinating ir own residents.